Friday, March 31, 2017

From the Probate Files: Sarah Sowell Hardy - Bertie County, North Carolina - 1809 - Inventory & Sale Proceeds

Sarah Sowell Hardy had already disposed of her enslaved people and as we saw last week the first part of her will was intended to maintain that division. That taken care of, what remained for her to leave her children makes a very short list, composed mostly of personal items. 


A true Inventory of all and Singular the goods and
Chattels, rights & credits of Mrs. Sarah Hardy Deceased,
Oct 30: 1809-----                                                                        
Her wearing apparel 3 phials, 1 nutmeg grater, 1 old pen knife,
1 pr. old scissors, 1 pr. shoe brushes, 1 trunk, 1 chest, 1 bed & bed
=stead & furniture, 4 sheets, 1 pillow case, about 2 yds. home
=spun cloth, 5 pr new stockings, 4 sets knitting pins, 2 Books,
1 turpentine dipper, 1 pr. spectacles, 1 pr. old scales, 1 old reel,
half of an old crosscut saw ______ Benjamin Hardy's note
for seventy-four pounds sixteen shillings & 4d. on interest from
the 26th march, 1805. Edward Hardy's note for fifty-five pounds
and 6d. dated the 31st. Dec'r. 1807, payable one day after date,
Charles Sowell's note for four pounds thirteen shillings & 6d. with
interest from the 26th. March 1809___ William Worley & Humphry
Gates note for two pounds nineteen shillings & 7d. dated 26th.
Sept'r 1804. payable six months after date Henry Boswells and
John Bird's note for a ballance of two pounds three shillings &
six pence on interest from the 26th. March 1805 a balance of
three shillings & 6d. due on John Morgan's notes, ____
verbal accounts to ^the amount of sixty-five dollars.____
                                                                W.P. Hardy


An Inventory of Sales of the Perishable estate of
Mrs. Sarah Hardy deceased, Octr. 20th 1809 _____
3 Phials........................................To Winifred Hardy........|-0|-1|-6
1 Grater, knife & old scissors...... " Benj'n. Hardy............|-"|-"|-6
1 pr. shoe Brushes........................ " Ditto.....Do............... |-"|-1|-6
1 trunk.......................................... " Moses Williams....... |-1|-"|-"
1 Chest.......................................... " Ditto.....Do...............|-1|-"|-"
1 Bed, Bedstead & furniture........." Benj'n. Hardy............|17|10|-"
1 piece homespun (about 2 yds.).. " Winifred Hardy....... |-"|-8|-"
2 sheets & 1 pillow case............... " Benj'n. Hardy............|-"|11|-"
1 pr. stockings............................... " Wm. P. Hardy...........|-"|13|-6
1 Pr.....ditto................................... "   Do.........Do.............|-"|13|-"
1 Pr.....ditto................................... "   Do.........Do.............|-"|-8|-"
1 Pr.....ditto................................... " Benj'n. Hardy...........|-"|10|-6
1 Pr.....ditto................................... "   Do.........Do.............|-"|-8|-"
4 sets knitting pins........................" Winifred Hardy....... |-"|-1|-8
2 Books........................................ " James Phelps............|-"|-5|-"
2 sheets......................................... " Winifred Hardy....... |-1|-"|-"
1 turpentine dipper....................... " Benj'n. Hardy............|-"|-1|-6
1 pr. specks.................................. " Moses Williams....... |-"|-"|-6
1 pr. old scales & reel.................. " Benj'n. Hardy............|-"|-"|-6
half of an old + saw...................." Moses Williams....... |-"|-2|-"
                                                                                       L 24|16|-8  
                                                                                W.P. Hardy Exe'r
The items that initially puzzled me were the turpentine dipper and the half of a cross-cut saw. However, a quick internet search reminded me of the fact that turpentine is a natural product distilled from the sap of pine trees.*

Her will directed that her daughters were to share her wearing apparel which is why none of it appears in the sales. Her bed, bedstead and furniture were the most valuable of her effects. I wonder what the titles of her two books were.

*Here's an explanation of the process of tapping a tree. Of course Sarah wasn't personally doing this task.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Thursday, March 30, 2017

Results from AncestryDNA Genetic Communities

I got three Genetic Communities.  I would upgrade these connection ratings from Likely and Possible to Definitely.  That is actually a decent summary of my ethnic background based on what I know and what the paper trail reveals.

So AncestryDNA now has a Genetic Communities feature.  I thought that I would have the same ones as my parents, but as you'll see, with the exception of Norwegians through my father, they have different communities than me.

I think this is an interesting new development for AncestryDNA.

My father's Genetic Community is Norwegians in Hordaland and Rogaland, which is exactly where his maternal grandparents came from. His other ethnic heritages are apparently too diffuse to pinpoint to a specific place, although he has a huge amount of British Isles and German ancestry that I know about.

My mother got two Genetic Communities.  They seem right on point.  I was surprised that her New England heritage didn't come through as strongly, though.  EDITED TO ADD: She actually has another Genetic Community, "Settlers of Central Georgia and Central Alabama" in her shared matches, but it doesn't show up (yet?) in her summary seen above.  That estimated GC is also on point.

Our dear reader Bonnie DID have a Genetic Community in New England.  This is not just possible, it is definite.

My husband Steve's Genetic Community is right on track.

Where my husband's great grandfather Ignatius Manczuk (1877-1933) came from (Trzyrzeczki, Poland).

Ancestry's guess as to Steve's Genetic Community.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Wednesday, March 29, 2017

Working on Wednesday: Porter Worden (1811 - 1891) Cooper & Farmer

If we had to rely only on the census records to follow this 3X great grandfather and his family we wouldn't know about several of the places he and his wife Hannah lived after they left their home state of New York. Fortunately his 1891 obituary in the Anamosa Eureka has come to light.

[Detail of a joint portrait of Porter and Hannah Leonard, c1860, Anamosa, Iowa.
Courtesy of Olive Slater-Kennedy]

[Iowa  Anamosa  The Anamosa Eureka   Thursday , February 26th , 1891.
Source: Digital Archives of the Jones County Genealogical Society.]

                  PORTER WORDEN
   Died, at the residence of Thurston Joslin, his
son-in-law, Feb 15, 1891 Porter Worden. He was
born in Oswego county New York, May 12, 1811,
was married to Hannah M. Leonard in the year
1838, ten children being the fruit of this union.
He came to Iowa in 1853. In the course of time he
moved to Missouri, lived in Nebraska for a time
and later returned to Iowa. In early life he
united with the Methodist church but in after
years united with the Baptist church at Fairview,
of which he was a consistent member at the time
of his death. The companion of his youth died in
Nebraska in January, 1887, at the age of 74 years.
They leave a family of eight children living. Six
of them were present to assist in caring for him.
He was a great sufferer in the last days but mur
mured not. He looked forward to the time when
he would soon be free from trouble. He fell asleep
in Jesus. His remains were followed to the church
by many relatives and friends, where services were
held, and then they bore him to Wilcox ceme-
tery where he now rests to aait the summons to arise.
  Mr. and Mrs.Joslin wish to tender their thanks
to the friends for their kind assistance in this
time of trouble.
                                      D. GIVEN, Pastor.

The information in the obituary would have been supplied by his children including Polly Ann Joslin and it mostly agrees with the records we have except that Porter was actually born in Cayuga County, New York--his family moved to Oswego when he was about five years old.

Hannah's family lived in Jefferson County, New York, and that's where she and Porter were living at the time of the 1840 and 1850 federal censuses. They moved to Iowa* within a year of her father Isaac Leonard's second marriage to a much younger woman.

His occupation was listed as "Cooper" in the 1850 U.S. Census, but in all later enumerations he was a farmer.

*First to Linn County before moving on to Fairview in Jones County by 1870. Neither their move to Missouri, possibly in connection with their daughter Elizabeth Anna and her husband Steven Peregoy who moved their family to Missouri around 1870, nor their sojourn in Nebraska (and Hannah's death there) would be known except for the obituary. Since their granddaughter (and my great grandmother) Elnora Worden Webb and her family had moved to Know County in 1885 it's likely that influenced Porter and Hannah's move there.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

BYUtv, AncestryDNA, and FamilySearch Present a New Genealogy Show: "Relative Race"

I have missed the Amazing Race, which has not aired this year for some reason.  But now I have discovered a show that combines the Amazing Race with genealogy!
What happens when genealogy meets reality TV? Using their DNA as a guide, contestants embark on the ultimate road trip across America, completing challenges and meeting unknown relatives along the way.

Watch both seasons here.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Monday, March 27, 2017

Monday Is for Mothers: Olive Baldwin (1778 - 1843)

Olive Baldwin and her husband Joseph Gates (1779-1854) are the parents of my great great great grandmother Mary "Polly" Gates. As you will find if you follow the link to my post about Polly Gates, Olive was added to this line in 2015.*

[Hyde genealogy; or, The descendants,in the female as well as in the male lines, from William Hyde, of Norwich...
by Reuben Hyde Walworth, , 1788-1867. Source: Internet Archive]

Olive was born in Canterbury in Windham County, Connecticut on September 2, 1779. Her parents were Aaron Baldwin and Mehitable Leonard.

She married Joseph around 1794, probably in Windham although I haven't found any online record of their marriage. Their first child was born in 1795--a daughter whose name isn't known.

As always with women before 1850, we have to follow Olive through records in her husband's name. In 1800 according to the federal census they were living in Preston in New London County. Most likely the Dorothy Gates whose name follows Joseph's in the enumeration is his widowed mother.

[Year: 1800; Census Place: Preston, New London, Connecticut; Series: M32; Roll: 3; Page: 708; Image: 220; Family History Library Film: 205620. 1800 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Second Census of the United States, 1800. NARA microfilm publication M32 (52 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]

Dorothy Gates died in February of 1805 and by September of that year Joseph, Olive and their family were living in Otsego County, New York, where Polly Gates was born. Here's the household in the 1810 U.S. Census for Unadilla.

[Year: 1810; Census Place: Unadilla, Otsego, New York; Roll: 34; Page: 173; Image: 00098; Family History Library Film: 0181388. 1810 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Third Census of the United States, 1810. (NARA microfilm publication M252, 71 rolls). Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]

[Image from The pioneers of Unadilla village, 1784-1840 by Halsey, Francis Whiting, 1851-1919; Gaius Leonard Halsey, 1819-1891.
Source: Internet Archive.]

By 1820 the Gates family had moved to Virgil in Cortland County, New York.

[1820 U S Census; Census Place: Virgil, Cortland, New York; Page: 621; NARA Roll: M33_66; Image: 341. 1820 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Fourth Census of the United States, 1820. (NARA microfilm publication M33, 142 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]

Olive died in 1843 so this 1840 U.S. Census record is the last official document she's represented in.

[Year: 1840; Census Place: Cortland, New York; Roll: 275; Page: 8; Image: 20; Family History Library Film: 0017184. 1840 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. (NARA microfilm publication M704, 580 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]

Olive Baldwin Gates died on January 6, 1843, and is buried in the Snyder Hill Cemetery in Virgil.

[Created by: Larry Wales; Record added: Apr 04, 2011
Find A Grave Memorial #67882262.
Photo: Larry Wales (#47374334)]

Joseph survived Olive by 11 years. He moved in with Polly and David Darling in Iowa and is buried there in Jones County.

*Credit where credit's due--Christine found this reference. Olive is not a very common given name among my ancestors and I think it's significant that Polly and her husband David Darling named one of their daughters Olive G. Darling (1838-1852). (Note that the Hyde connection is not in my direct line.)

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Sunday Drive (and Laundry): Yachats, Oregon - September, 1948

Obviously this was taken on a bright sunny day near the Oregon Coast. I was 17 months old. 

The truck is a 1948 Dodge which has appeared in this blog before.

[From my personal collection.]

Dad's note on the slide holder says it was taken at Yachats Forest Camp which either no longer exists or is called by another name. I think it's most likely the Cape Perpetua Campground in the Siuslaw National Forest.

[Hammond's New World Atlas. Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States and Territories. Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. Garden City, N.Y., U.S.A. 1948. Source: David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.]

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Robert Bittle (abt 1720-1795) Gets a Land Grant in 1750 in Isle of Wight County, Virginia

My 7th great grandfather Robert Bittle's 1750 land grant in Isle of Wight, Virginia.  Quite some boilerplate language, but then they were still a colony of England and subject to English law.  Virginia. Colonial Land Office. Land Office Patents No. 29, 1749-1751 (v.1 & 2 p.1-532), p. 288 (Reel 27).  Robert Bittle, grantee, Isle of Wight county, Land grant 3 November 1750; digital images, Library of Virginia catalog ( Patent : 25 March 2017).

Robt. Bittle 150
George the second by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith etc.
To all whom there Presents shall come Greeting Know Ye that for divers good causes and
Considerations but more especially for and in consideration of the Sum of Fifteen Shillings of good
and lawful Money for our Use paid to our Receiver General of our Revenues in the this our Colony and
Dominion of Virginia We have given granted and confirmed and by these Presents for us our
Heirs and Successors do give grant and conform unto Robert Bittle one certain Tract or Parcel of Land
containing one hundred and fifty acres lying and being in the County of Isle of Wight on the South
Side of Nottoway River and bounded as followeth, to wit, Beginning at a small black oak a Corner
of Samuel Lucy's Land in the Fork of Cocks Swamps Thence north East fifty eight poles to a white
Oak Then north thirty five Degrees West one hundred and ninety Poles to a Hiccory Thence
north seventy five Degrees West one hundred and thirty five Poles to a Pine then South
twenty five Degrees West thirty six Poles to a black Oak Then South forty Degrees East sixty
two Poles to a white Oak Then South eighty seven Degrees East seventeen Poles to a red Oak
a Corner of William Brooks Land Then by the said Brooks Lines South fifty Degrees East
forty three Poles to a black Oak and South twenty Degrees East one hundred and sixteen Poles
to a Hiccory Saplin in Samuel Lucy's Line aforesaid Then by the said Lucy's Line South eighty
Degrees East eighty four Poles to the Beginning With All Woods Underwoods Swamps
Marshes Lowgrounds Meadows Feedings and his due Share of all Veins Mines and Quarries
as well discovered as not discovered within the Bounds aforesaid and being Part of the said
Quantity of one hundred and fifty acres of Land and the Rivers Waters and WaterCourses
therein contained together with the Privileges of Hunting Hawking Fishing Fowling and all 
other Profits Commodities and Heredetaments whatsoever to the same or any Part thereof
belonging or in anywise appertaining to have hold possess and enjoy the said tract or
Parcel of Land and all other the before granted Premises and every Part thereof with their and
every of their Appurtenances and the said Robert Bittle and to his heirs and Assigns forever
to the only Use and Behoof of him the said Robert Bittle his heirs and Assigns forever
To be held of us our Heirs and Successors as of our Mannor of East Greenwich in the
County of Kent in free and common Soccage and not in Capite or by Knight's Service
Yielding and Paying unto us our heirs and Successors for every fifty Acres of Land
and so proportionably for a lesser or greater Quantity than fifty acres the Fee Rent of one
Shilling yearly to be paid upon the Feast of Saint Michael the Arch Angel and also
cultivating and improving three Acres Part of every fifty of the Tract abovementioned
within three Years after the Date of these Presents Provided always that if three
Years of the said Fee Rent shall at any Time be in Arrear and unpaid or if the said

page 289 of the same land grant.

Robert Bittle his heirs or Assigns do not within the Space of three Years next coming after the Date of
these ^Presents cultivate and improve three acres part of every fifty of the Tract above mentioned then the Estate
hereby granted shall cease and be utterly determined and thereafter it shall and may be lawfull to
and for us our heirs and Successors to grant the same Lands and Premises with with the Appurtences 
unto such other Person or Persons as we our heirs and Successors shall think fit In Witness
whereof we have caused these our Letters Patent to be made Witness our Trusty and Welbeloved
Thomas Lee Esp. President of our Council and Commander in Chief of our said Colony and Dominion
at Williamsburgh under the Seal our said Colony the third Day of November One Thousand
seven hundred and fifty in the twenty fourth year of our Reign.
                                                                 Thomas Lee P.

I keep using the big aggregate websites like FamilySearch and Ancestry.  When I remember to look at state resources, like the Library of Virginia, it amazes me what is available there.

I just typed in Robert Bittle and actually came up with a record on him!  I need to play around with what this Library of Virginia catalog offers since I have so many people who came from Virginia in the Colonial era.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Friday, March 24, 2017

From the Probate Files: Sarah Sowell Hardy - Bertie County, North Carolina - 1809

It is rare for a widow in this time period to make a will because most often what property they had was only "lent" to them for their lifetime or widowhood under the terms of their husbands' wills and they didn't own enough to make drawing up a will necessary.

We know that Sarah Sowell Hardy inherited three enslaved persons from her husband William's estate in 1794, Dave, Pen and Rose. Since she had nine children and all but her son Charles apparently had received a slave in a division of her human property the previous November, she must have acquired five more* in the meantime. Her will is primarily concerned that the results of that division "shall stand good."

In the name of God, Amen, I Sarah Hardy of the State
of North Carolina & County of Bertie being sick & weak in
Body but of sound & disposing mind & memory, do con
=stitute & ordain this my Last Will & Testament, First,
I give my soul to Almighty God, beseeching his most
Gracious acceptance of it, and my Body ^to the Earth to be
buried in a decent Christian Burial at the direction of
my Executors herein after named, And my worldly Estate
I dispose of in the following manner. _____
First, It is my will and desire that the Division that
was made of my negroes in November last among
my children shall stand    good & that each one of my
children have the  negro that was then drawn for them,
and also the orphans of my son Lamb Hardy dec'd. have the
negro then drawn for them and that each one of my child
=ren and said orphans have a good & absolute right & title
in & to the said negroes severally drawn for them at said
division on their paying to my Executors herein after nam
=ed the several sums of money that the said negroes were
valued to, over an equal Division of the whole amount of
the valuation of all said negroes among all my children
and it is my will and desire that my Executors pay to my
son Charles Hardy out of the money received from
my other children in consequence of the division of said
negroes, the sum of money laid off, to him at said Division
in consequence of him having no negro, and also that
they my Executors pay to my son Benjamin Hardy 
out of said money as above, the Balance 
due him on account ^of his drawing a low price
negro. ______
Secondly, I will & desire that my wearing apparel
be divided among my surviving daughters.
Thirdly, I will and desire that the residue of my
Estate be divided equally among all my children &
the orphans of my son Lamb Hardy dec'd.; said orphans to
receive one share between among them. _____

[Wills and Estate Papers (Bertie County), 1663-1978; Author: North Carolina. Division of Archives and History; Probate Place: Bertie, North Carolina. North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2015. Original data: North Carolina County, District and Probate Courts.]

Item & Lastly, I nominate & appoint my living Sons
Willian P. Hardy & Benjamin Hardy Executors
of this my last Will & Testament, revoking all
former wills, ratifying & confirming this to be my
last Will & Testament, In Witness whereof I
have hereunto set my hand & seal this 20th
day July Anno. Dom. 1808_____
Signed, Seal'd, Declared     }            her
& pronounced in presence  }    Sarah X Hardy  {Seal}
of                                         }         mark
     Cornelious Williams X
     Sarah Williams

     State of North Carolina  }
     Bertie County Court      }  August term 1809
                                               this last will & Testament
of Sarah Hardy dec'd was exhibited in
open Court by William P. Hardy one
of the Executors therein named and
the Execution thereof proved in due
form of Law by the oath of Cornelius
Williams on of the subscribing Witnesses
thereto -----  ordered that the said will
be recorded ----- and the said Exe-
cutor having qualified agreable to 
Law it is ordered that Letters Tes-
tamentary issue. _____
          Lot Cherny  Jun.Ck.

Next time we'll look at the inventory of her meager estate and the amount realized in the sale of her perishable property.

*Sadly we don't know the names of these five people since she no longer owned them, they do not appear in the inventory of her estate.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Thursday, March 23, 2017

Thursday Night Free Webinar: Judy G. Russell presents "Picture This: Images You Can Freely Use"

As a blogger I sometimes struggle to find images I can use without violating copyright.  The great Judy G. Russell provides some places to look in her webinar "Picture This: Images You Can Freely Use."
There *are* images out there for use in your genealogical writing and speaking, free, and free from copyright. Learn to find and use them safely.

Webinar free to view to non-subscribers of Legacy Family Tree Webinars through March 29, 2017.  The syllabus with this webinar, which is chock full of helpful links, is available only to subscribers.

Runtime 1 hour 27 minutes.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Fantastic Find: Lowcounty Africana

We've all done it--come across a genealogy website that is not only useful but gorgeous! That's what happened to me recently when a link from This Cruel War brought Lowcountry Africana to my attention.

[From the website]

Here's a description from the website:
Lowcountry Africana is entirely dedicated to records that document the family and cultural heritage of African Americans in the historic rice-growing areas of South Carolina, Georgia and extreme northeastern Florida, an area that scholars and preservationists have identified as a distinct culture area. Lowcountry Africana was developed with a grant from the Magnolia Plantation Foundation of Charleston, South Carolina.
Lowcountry Africana also includes information about South Carolina slaveholding families.
The search for enslaved ancestors requires research in the records of slaveholding families. In order to identify records of interest, you must first examine the genealogy of slaveholding families. 
Researching a slaveholder’s genealogy can be a time-consuming task, but fortunately, there are many genealogies for South Carolina slaveholders online. Here, we provide links to online genealogies of South Carolina slaveholders.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Working on Wednesday: Isaac Leonard (About 1790 - 1862), Farmer

A life-long resident of New York State, Isaac Leonard and his first wife Jemima White had probably been married only a couple of years when he enlisted as a private during the War of 1812.*

[War of 1812 Service Record Index,]

We know that the Leonards were living in Hounsfield in Jefferson County, New York, by 1816 when Isaac entered into an agreement to buy 25 acres of Great Lot Thirty-Nine for $100 and was described as being "of Hounsfield."

[Jefferson County, New York : from actual surveys, 1855. Source: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division Washington, D.C.]

[Detail from above showing Hounsfield and Brownville Townships in 1855]

["New York Land Records, 1630-1975," images, FamilySearch ( : 22 May 2014), Jefferson > image 421 of 568;
county courthouses, New York.]

However, as shown on the following page, this indenture wasn't recorded until 1822 so I don't know when (or if) the Leonard family might have resided there.

[Source: FamilySearch]

Isaac and Jemima with their young family as shown as residents of Hounsfield in the 1820 U.S. Census.**

[1820 U S Census; Census Place: Hounsfield, Jefferson, New York; Page: 405; NARA Roll: M33_72; Image: 222. 1820 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.
Original data: Fourth Census of the United States, 1820. (NARA microfilm publication M33, 142 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]


By New York State's 1825 enumeration, the Leonard family had reached its final size: Isaac, Jemima, two sons and seven daughters.*** (Their second child, my great great great grandmother Hannah Leonard was 12.)

From the 1830 U.S. Census we can deduce that one of the Leonard daughters has died. This is the last census to include Jemima.

[1830; Census Place: Hounsfield, Jefferson, New York; Series: M19; Roll: 92; Page: 194; Family History Library Film: 0017152. 1830 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch.Original data: Fifth Census of the United States, 1830. (NARA microfilm publication M19, 201 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]


Ten years later the Leonard household had moved to neighboring Brownville and shrunk to four people as the older children married and started their own families.****

[Year: 1840; Census Place: Brownville, Jefferson, New York; Roll: 292; Page: 414; Image: 956; Family History Library Film: 0017190. 1840 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. (NARA microfilm publication M704, 580 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.]


That same year Isaac paid $600 for land in Brownville.

["New York Land Records, 1630-1975," images, FamilySearch ( : 22 May 2014), Jefferson > image 49 of 645; county courthouses, New York.]

By 1850 Isaac was living in his younger son Isaac Newton Leonard and his family in Brownville. One of his daughters Anna, the wife of Joseph Carpenter, was living next door with her family.

[Year: 1850; Census Place: Brownville, Jefferson, New York; Roll: M432_514; Page: 189A; Image: 140. 1850 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.]

But if you're picturing old Isaac dozing by the fireside surrounded by his grandchildren...there's a surprise in store for you in 1855 New York State Census. Recall that I referred to Jemima as his first wife? Well, in 1851 he married his second, 25-year old, Canadian-born Mary. And by 1855 his new family included 6-year old Mary (also born in Canada and not his biological daughter*****), and daughter Emily - 3, and son James, just a year old.

[ New York, State Census, 1855 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2013. Original data: Census of the state of New York, for 1855. Microfilm. New York State Archives, Albany, New York.]

Other useful information to be gleaned from the census is that Isaac's frame house was valued at $350. In response to another census question not shown here, Isaac stated he was born in Montgomery County, New York.

In the 1860 U.S. Census, the Leonard household hasn't substantially changed, although this enumeration gives us an idea of Isaac's real and personal wealth. Also young Mary's name is recorded as Hellen this time.

[Year: 1860; Census Place: Brownville, Jefferson, New York; Roll: M653_761; Page: 791; Family History Library Film: 803761. 1860 United States Federal Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2009. Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.]

Isaac Leonard of Brownville is on a list of War of 1812 veterans who filed a claim with the State of New York. The preface to a re-printing of the list explains what it was about.

[New York, Index of Awards On Claims of the Soldiers of the War of 1812 [database on-line].]

On March 3, 1862, Isaac Leonard "at the age of eight-two years and upward" made his will which was presented for probate in February of 1863 at Watertown, New York. We don't know his exact date of death or where he was buried.

I'll be covering Isaac's will next week.

*There were two Isaac Leonards from New York  who served in the military at this time so while there are supplementary records it's not clear to me which ones refer to my ancestor. I'll address that in a future post.
**From the birth years of their known children we assume Isaac and Jemima married in about 1809-10 so I don't know who the young white male 16 - 25 could be, but he and Isaac are undoubtedly the two persons engaged in agriculture.
***This information is only available as a database record without an image.
****Hannah Leonard married Porter Worden in 1838.
*****This is made clear in his will.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

My 7th Great Grandfather Robert Bittle (abt 1720-abt 1795) Was on a Slave Patrol in Southampton County, Virginia

Google Books often provides a limited preview to recently published books, like the one I came across today while searching for my Bittle ancestors in 18th century Southampton County, Virginia, "Lethal Imagination: Violence and Brutality in American History," edited by Michael A. Bellesiles (also available on Amazon).

From page 73:
From these patrol-created files we can learn much about the pattern of violence that slaves experienced in colonial Virginia at the hands of whites who were not necessarily their owners.  The earliest extant notes recording patrol activity come from Southampton County in 1754.  Three patrol groups submitted extensive accounts in that year, listing the days and times they rode and giving details of the slaves they captured. A comparison of the names of patrollers with the names of the plantations visited suggests that the three patrol groups worked as distinct units in different parts of the county and submitted separate reports of their activities.  Multiple patrol groups would have been a necessity in the large and growing counties of Virginia.  Even though Southampton had more white residents than slaves by the mid-1750s, the fact that whites outnumbered blacks did not ease the fears of many Virginia colonists; attempted slave revolts in 1729 and 1730, and rumors of insurrections later in the 1730s must have frightened many whites.  The knowledge that runaway slaves had repeatedly and southern margins of Virginia must have been unsettling, and that knowledge provided a strong rationale for the activities and payment of county slave patrols. 13 
The details in patrolling journals vary dramatically, depending upon the individual recordkeeper, but broad similarities can be found in all.  Colonial Virginia slave patrols typically rode in groups of four or five, and their journals commence by listing the individuals' names.  "John Brantly & Philip Bran[t]ly & Will[ia]m Grimmer & William Joyner Junr have Rode in the patrole servis the 28th of Septem[ber]" runs a standard patrol entry. 14 
Virtually every patrol report gives specifics about the number of hours worked, with a few presenting precise information about the exact number of hours worked by each man in the group.  In Southampton, John Seuter, Jacob Turner, Simon Harris, Robert Bittle and William Kirby worked precisely 50, 32, 126, 108, and 126 hours, respectively, in an eight-month span.  The patrol reports usually carry the signature of the militia captain, justice of the peace, or court clerk who vouched that the work had been completed faithfully.  Patrols most often worked from sundown to sunup, during the "Negro's day" -- when slaves left their cabins to attend meetings or to travel after their workday ended.  As they patrolled, they encountered both slave men and women.  After an evening's work in October 1754, patroller Bennet Hilsman wrote, "We Patrolers did ketch a negroe man slave belonging to Joshua Barnes & a Negro woman slave and Childe...and she was a Runaway she said."  
Where is the "Dislike" button?  This is one of those things that I don't enjoy finding out, that my ancestor was a member of a slave patrol, in an area later rocked by the Nat Turner Slave rebellion over 70 years later, no less.

This information doesn't surprise me, though, given what I already knew about the area during that time, and my people there either owned slaves or were overseers.

Using the "Search Inside This Book" at Amazon I discovered that footnote 14 was taken from "Patrol returns and lists, 1754-1861, Free Negroes, Slaves and Indians records, Southampton County, LV."

This lead me to the Library of Virginia's website, and A Guide To The Southampton County (VA.) Free Negro and Slave Records, 1754-1860, a non-digitized collection of 3 boxes taken from the Southampton County Circuit Court.

This is a good reminder that most stuff is not online!  I just lucked out that a researcher published the records in their work.

Robert Bittle was an ancestor of my 4th great grandfather, Benjamin "B. R." Biddle.  The William Kirby mentioned in the same sentence in the quote is most likely Robert Bittle's brother-in-law.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.

Monday, March 20, 2017

Monday Is for Mothers: Sarah Sowell (1733 - 1809)

Sarah Sowell married William Hardy on November 26, 1751, in Bertie County, North Carolina; both were born in that county and never moved from it. During their life together Sarah and William had nine children--my fourth great grandfather John H. Hardy (1773-1854) was their second to last child.

[ A Map of the most Inhabited part of Virginia containing the whole province of Maryland with Part of Pensilvania, New Jersey and North Carolina. Drawn by Joshua Fry & Peter Jefferson in 1775. Printed for Robt. Sayer ... London.
Source: David Rumsey Historical Map Collection.]

[Detail of above map]

William died (apparently intestate) around 1793 and Sarah received her widow's share of his estate which included three enslaved persons, Dave, Pen and Rose early in 1794


We find her in the 1800 U.S. Census six years later as head of a household that included 12 enslaved persons.

[Year: 1800; Census Place: Bertie, North Carolina; Series: M32; Roll: 30; Page: 48; Image: 55; Family History Library Film: 337906. 1800 United States Federal Census [database on-line] Images reproduced by FamilySearch. Original data: Second Census of the United States, 1800. NARA microfilm publication M32 (52 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29.
National Archives, Washington, D.C.]

Sarah Sowell Hardy died in Bertie County in 1809, leaving a will which we'll look at on Friday.

© 2017 Copyright, Christine Manczuk, All Rights Reserved.